Table of Contents
Volume 1
The Science of Chemistry • Are Chemistry and Chemicals Dangerous? • If Some Chemicals Are Hazardous, Why Do We Need to Deal with Them? • Matter and Substance
Chemical Elements Are Different Types of Atoms • Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids • Chemical Formulas • Exercises
Simple and Complex Substances • Simple Substances and Elements: There Is a Difference! Exercises
Individual Substances • Impurities and Purity • Mixtures of Substances • Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Mixtures • Separation of Mixtures and Purification Methods: Distillation and Recrystallization • Crystallization Experiments • Unconventional Separation Techniques • Exercises
The Key Difference between Physical and Chemical Phenomena • Experiments • Exercises
Chemical Reactions and Equations • Signs of Chemical Reactions • Simple Chemical Calculations. Stoichiometry. The Law of Conservation of Mass (Matter) and the Law of Definite (Constant) Proportion • Limiting Reagent • Exercises
Mass Percentages of Elements in Compounds • Determination of Atomic Masses of Elements • Exercises
Are There Many Types of Chemical Reactions? • Combination Reactions • Decomposition Reactions • Substitution (Displacement) Reactions • Exchange (Metathesis) Reactions • Balancing Simple Chemical Equations • Performing Selected Reactions of Different Types at Home • Exercises
Valence • Exercises
General Information • Ozone (O3). Allotropy • Applications of Oxygen • Physical Properties of O2 • Preparation of Oxygen • Chemical Properties of O2 • Exercises
General Information • Applications of Hydrogen • Physical Properties of H2 • Preparation of Hydrogen. Experiment • Chemical Properties of H2 • Exercises
Acids. General Information • Nomenclature of Acids • Sulfuric Acid. Dehydration • Hydrochloric Acid. Mass Percentage Concentration • Nitric Acid • Phosphoric Acid • Carbonic Acid • Bases. General Information and Nomenclature • Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda), NaOH, and Potassium Hydroxide (Caustic Potash), KOH • Calcium Hydroxide (Slaked Lime), Ca(OH)2 • Insoluble Bases • Is This an Acid or a Base? Acid-Base Indicators • Exercises
Neutralization Reaction. Salts • Partial Neutralization • Exercises
General Information • Nomenclature of Oxides • Basic, Acidic, Amphoteric, and Neutral Oxides • Preparation of Oxides • Chemical Properties of Oxides • Exercises
Preamble What Is Acidic Reacts with What Is Basic and What Is Basic Reacts with What Is Acidic • Reactions That Go to Completion • Exercises
General Remarks • Preparation of Acids • Chemical Properties of Acids • Exercises
General Remarks and Nomenclature • Natural Occurrence and Preparation of Metal Hydroxide Bases • Chemical Properties of Bases. Experiment: Reaction of Aluminum with NaOH • Exercises
General Information and Nomenclature • Preparation of Salts • Chemical Properties of Salts. Experiment: Reaction of CuSO4 with Fe (iron nail) • Exercises
Volume 2
The Need to Systematize Chemical Information in the 19th Century. Mendeleev's Breakthrough • It Is Not the Atomic Weight that Governs the Periodic Law • Exercises
What Is an Atom? The Size and Mass of Atoms • Atomic Nuclei and Electrons. Composition and Size of the Nucleus. Protons and Neutrons • Atomic Numbers • Role of Neutrons in the Nucleus. Isotopes • Applications of Isotopes in Chemistry • Atomic Masses, Atomic Weights, and Atomic Mass Units (a.m.u.) Revisited • Exercises
Electron Shells • Electron Subshells. Orbitals. The 1st and 2nd Electron Shells: Populating the Orbitals with Electrons. The Aufbau Principle, the Pauli Principle, and Hund's Rule • The 3rd Shell. The Periodicity Comes from the Electron Configuration of the Outermost Shell • The 4th Electron Shell. The Tricks of the d- and f-Orbitals • Exercises
Why Are the Noble Gases so Stable? • Every Element Wants to Be Happy. The Octet Rule. Ions • Ionic Bond: "One Man's Trash is Another Man's Treasure" • Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids • Metallic Bond: What Metal Atoms Do When There Is No Electron Acceptor Around • Covalent Bond: What Nonmetal Atoms Do When There Is No Electron Donor Around • Lewis Dot Diagrams • Nonpolar and Polar Covalent Bonds. Electronegativity. • Coordinate (Donor-Acceptor) Bond • Hydrogen Bond • A Summary of Chemical Bonds • Exercises
The Arrhenius Groundbreaking Theory. Dissociation of Salts, Acids, and Bases • How Water Dissolves Ionic Compounds • How Covalent Compounds Dissociate in Water. Heterolytic and Homolytic Cleavage of Covalent Bonds. • They Come Together and Part Non-Stop. Chemical Equilibrium • Strong and Weak Electrolytes. Degree of Dissociation • Water, Acids, and Bases from the Perspective of Electrolytic Dissociation • The pH Scale. Acid-Base Indicators. Have Fun with Flowers, Vinegar, and Ammonia • Exercises
Neutralization Reaction Revisited. Complete and Net Ionic Equations for Reactions of Strong Acids with Strong Bases • Ionic Equations for Neutralization Reactions Involving Weak Acids and Bases • Ionic Equations for Exchange Reactions • Reactions That Go to Completion Revisited • Exercises
Aqueous Solutions of Various Salts Can Be Neutral, Basic, or Acidic. How Cations and Anions Produced on Dissociation of Salts Interact with Water • Exercises
How Solutions of Electrolytes Conduct Electricity. What Happens When Ions Reach the Electrodes. Electrolysis of HCl and CuCl2 • Oxidation and Reduction. Redox Reactions. Oxidants and Reductants • Exercises
Oxidation State • Exercises
Balancing Simple Redox Equations Using Oxidation States (Numbers) • Disproportionation and Comproportionation • Exercises
Molarity and the Mole • Simple Calculations Using the Mole Unit • Molar Concentration • The Avogadro Constant. A Little about Gases. How Much Oxygen Does My Car Consume? • Exercises
Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions • Rates of Chemical Reactions. Guldberg and Waage's Law of Mass Action. Rate Constant. Concentration and Temperature as Key Factors Influencing Reaction Rate • Catalysis • Reversible Reactions and Chemical Equilibrium Again. Bodenstein's Experiments • Le Chatelier's Principle. Synthesis of Ammonia • Exercises
Volume 3
Natural Occurrence and Discovery • Physical Properties • Chemical Properties • Alkali Metal Hydroxides and Their Strength as Bases • Preparation and Reactions of NaOH and KOH • Selected Examples of Alkali Metal Salts • Exercises
Natural Occurrence and Physical Properties. Would Fireworks Be Possible Without Alkaline Earth Metals? • Chemical Properties of the Alkaline Earth Metals • Water Hardness • Alkaline Earth Metal Compounds Around Us • Exercises
Natural Occurrence and Physical Properties • General Chemical Properties of Halogens • Chlorine • Hydrochloric Acid • Is HCl the Strongest Acid of All Hydrogen Halides? • Oxygen Derivatives of Chlorine • Bromine and Iodine • Fluorine • Silver Halides • Halogen Compounds Around Us • Exercises
Natural Occurrence and Physical Properties • Sulfur Oxides. Sulfurous Acid and Sulfuric Acid. The Contact Process • Hydrogen Sulfide • Exercises
Natural Occurrence and Physical Properties • The Exceptional Stability and Inertness of N2. Ammonia. Synthesis of Nitric Acid by Oxidation of Ammonia • General Properties of Nitric Acid • The Variety of Oxidation States of Nitrogen Nitric Acid as an Oxidizer. Reactions of HNO3 with Metals and Nonmetals: The Myths and the Reality • Thermal Decomposition of Nitrates • Phosphorus. Phosphorus Pentoxide • Phosphoric Acid • Exercises
Natural Occurrence • Allotropes of Carbon. Diamond, Graphite, and Fullerenes. Coal and Coke. Activated Carbon. Adsorption and Absorption • Organic Chemistry: A Separate Branch of Chemical Sciences • Carbon Oxides and Carbonic Acid • Silicon, Silicon Oxide, and Silicic Acid. Cement and Glass. Silica Gel • Exercises
Natural Occurrence and Physical Properties • Production and Uses of Aluminum • Chemical Properties and Amphoterism of Aluminum. Is Aluminum a Metal or Nonmetal? • Exercises
Natural Occurrence and Physical Properties • Production of Iron and Steel • Chemical Properties • Corrosion • Exercises
The Ion Electron Method for Balancing Redox Reactions • Exercises
Volume 4
What Is Organic Chemistry? • Why Carbon? Hydrocarbons • Other Elements Commonly Encountered in Organic Compounds • Why Is Organic Chemistry Called Organic? Friedrich Wöhler's Groundbreaking Experiments
Methane, CH4, the Simplest Organic Molecule • How Can We Explain That CH4 Is Tetrahedral? Hybridization • Alkanes with Two or More Carbon Atoms. Homology. Nomenclature of Linear Alkanes • Isomerism of Alkanes. Nomenclature of Branched Alkanes Cycloalkanes • Natural Occurrence, Preparation, and Applications of Alkanes • Chemical Properties of Alkanes • Exercises
Ethylene, the Simplest Alkene • How Can We Explain That CH2=CH2 Is Planar? • Alkenes with Three or More Carbon Atoms. Double Bond Position Isomerism and Cis-Trans Isomerism. Nomenclature of Alkenes • Chemical Properties of Alkenes: Addition Reactions of the C=C Double Bond. Markovnikov's Rule • Mechanism of Addition Reactions of Alkenes • Hydrogenation of Alkenes • Radical Polymerization of Ethylene • Natural Occurrence, Production, and Applications of Alkenes • Exercises
Acetylene, the Simplest Alkyne • How Can We Explain That HC≡CH Is Linear? • Alkynes with Three or More Carbon Atoms. Isomerism and Nomenclature of Alkynes • Chemical Properties of Alkynes • Production and Applications of Alkynes • Exercises
Benzene. August Kekulé's Uroboros Dream • The sp2 Model of Benzene • Isomerism and Nomenclature of Aromatic Compounds • Chemical Properties of Benzene • Production and Applications of Benzene and Other Aromatic Hydrocarbons • Exercises
What Is a Functional Group? Alcohols, Polyols, and Phenols • Aldehydes and Ketones • Carboxylic Acids. How Soap Works • Exercises
Acid-Base Properties of Alcohols and Carboxylic Acids • Redox Reactions of Alcohols, Aldehydes, and Carboxylic Acids. What Is Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry? • Esterification. Esters. Saponification. What Are Triglycerides? • Polyester • Ethers • Exercises
Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose • Cellulose and Starch • Exercises
Amines. Basicity of Amines • Aniline • Amino Acids. Proteins • Chirality. We Are All Chiral! • Nylon. Kevlar®. Nomex® • Exercises